Significant daily events in the month of June in Philippine history

Today in Philippine History, June 1, 1649, Miguel Ponce Barberan was killed by Sumuroy marking the beginning of the Palapag rebellion

On Tuesday, June 1, 1649, Father Miguel Ponce Barberan was killed by Sumuroy by hurling a javelin (lance) at him, killing the priest instantly. This event marked the beginning of uprising of the men of Palapag (in the present day Northern Samar). The uprising is to be known as the "Sumuroy Rebellion".

Sumuroy was a skilled pilot of the sea and because of this account he was favored by the father and had enjoyed immunity from tribute and personal services.

Due to loses of galleons, it was necessary to maintain a shipyard in Cavite. Through a decree issued by Governor-general Diego Fajardo, carpenters from Manila were drafted and additional carpenters and laborers from each province were demanded. Provinces away from Manila resented the decree and immediately made demonstration of displeasure.

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Today in Philippine History, June 2, 1899, the Malolos Congress declared war on the United States

Opening of the Malolos Congress on September 15, 1898   
Opening of the Malolos Congress on September 15, 1898.   
On June 2, 1899, the Malolos Congress declared war on the United States, with its President, Pedro Paterno, issuing a Proclamation of War.

Prior to this proclamation, several battles had already occurred between the Filipino and American forces.

Accordingly, this phase of the Philippine–American War, also known as the Philippine War of Independence or the Philippine Insurrection (1899– 1902) was an armed military conflict between the Philippines and the United States which arose from the struggle of the First Philippine Republic to gain independence following annexation by the United States.

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Today in Philippine History, June 3, 1876, Jose Palma was born in Tondo, Manila

   Jose Palma
   Jose Palma
On June 3, 1876, Jose Palma, famous poet who wrote the lyrics of the Philippine national anthem, was born in Tondo, Manila. He was the youngest child of Don Hermogenes Palma and Hilaria Velasquez.

Palma continued his studies at the Ateneo Municipal after he finished his primera enseñanza in Tondo. It was while in Ateneo when he started composing verses. One of his earliest works was "La cruz de Sampaguitas" which he composed in 1893, the same year when he fell in love with Florentina Arellano. Their relationship, however, was cut short by the girl's parents who did not approve of him.

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Today in Philippine History, June 4, 1565, the Peace Treaty of Cebu was signed

On June 4, 1565, the peace treaty of Cebu between Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, representing King Philip II of Spain, and Rajah Tupas of Cebu was signed. It is the first Philippine peace treaty which effectively created Spain's suzerain over Cebu.

Rajah Tupaz was the son of Sri Parang the Limp, and the nephew of Rajah Humabon (also known as Sri Hamabar). He is known to have been baptized on March 21, 1568 at age 70, placing his birthdate at about 1497.

He ruled Cebu with his peers until he was defeated by Miguel Lopez de Legazpi's soldiers on April 27, 1565.

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Today in Philippine History, June 5, 1754, a Real Cedula providing compulsory teaching of Spanish was received in the Philippines

On June 5, 1754, a Real Cedula (Royal Decree) of King Ferdinand VI of Spain, providing for the compulsory teaching of Spanish in all schools for boys and girls, was received in the Philippines.

Spanish language is among the lasting legacies of Spain to the Filipinos, which linguistic authorities said has enriched the national language called Pilipino with at least 5,000 Spanish loan-words.

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Today in Philippine history, June 5, 1899, General Antonio Luna was killed by Aguinaldo's men in Cabanatuan

General Antonio Luna   
General Antonio Luna   
On June 5, 1899, General Antonio Luna was killed in the plaza of a rectory in Cabanatuan, Nueva Ecija. Luna was to attend a council of war called by General Emilio Aguinaldo.

Luna arrived with two aides-de camp and a mounted escort of twelve men. After dismounting and dismissing his escort, he proceeded alone to the rectory where Aguinaldo had his headquarters. On mounting the stairs, he was met by a junior officer, who informed him that Aguinaldo had left with his command. Luna felt slighted and expressed himself very strongly on the matter and prepared to take his departure. As he turned to leave the room, a sergeant of one of the two companies that Aguinaldo had left at Cabanatuan, sprang from behind the door, where he had been concealed, and attacked Luna from behind, inflicting a severe wound with a bolo.

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Today in Philippine History, June 6, 1875, Norberto Romualdez Sr. was born

Norberto Romualdez Sr   
Norberto Romualdez Sr.   
On June 6, 1875, Norberto Romualdez Sr., Leyte's favorite son and delegate to the first constitutional convention, was born in Burauen, Leyte. He was the brother of Vicente Orestes Romualdez, the father of Imelda Romualdez Marcos.

Romualdez was one of the "Seven Wise Men" who drafted the 1935 Constitution for the Philippine Commonwealth.

He finished his Bachelor of Arts with honors at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila in 1895 and earned his title of Maestro de Segunda Ensenanza (high school teacher) at the University of Santo Tomas before the outbreak of the Philippine Revolution.

He studied law during the American Occupation and passed the Bar in 1903.

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Today in Philippine History, June 7, 1907, Arturo Belleza Rotor was born

On June 7, 1907, Arturo Belleza Rotor, considered as among the best Filipino short story writers of the twentieth century, was born. Rotor was also a Medical Doctor.

He attended the University of the Philippines (UP), graduating from the Conservatory of Music and the College of Medicine.

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Today in Philippine History, June 8, 1625, the revolt of Neuva Segovia took place

On June 8, 1625, the revolt Nueva Segovia (present day Cagayan province) took place in a village called Abulag led by Don Miguel Lanab and a person only known as Alababan. The rebellion started with the killing of Fray Alonso Garcia and Fray Onofre Palao by Lanab and Alababan, followed by burning a church.

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Today in Philippine History, June 9, 1975, the Philippines and China established diplomatic relations

On June 9, 1975, the Republic of the Philippines and the People's Republic of China signed a Joint Communique in Beijing formally establishing diplomatic relations between the two countries at the ambassadorial level.

Related to this, Presidential Proclamation No. 148 was issued by President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo on January 22, 2002 declaring June 9 of every year as Filipino-Chinese Friendship Day.

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Today in Philippine History, June 9, 1904, Artemio Ricarte was accused of conspiracy, rebellion and insurrection against the Americans

Artemio Ricarte   
General Artemio Ricarte   
On June 9, 1904, noted Filipino General Artemio Ricarte was accused of illegal possession of firearms, conspiracy, rebellion and insurrection against the Americans.

The so-called "Father of the Philippine Army", Ricarte was the Chief of Operations of the Philippine forces during the Philippine-American War which started in 1899.

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Today in Philippine History, June 10, 1873, Restituto Javier was born

Restituto Javier   
(Restituto Javier, photo credit: Pinoy History)   
On June 10, 1873, Restituto Javier, a native of Tondo and believed to be the first to be accepted by Andres Bonifacio to the Katipunan, was born.

Javier was employed by Fressel and Co., a British firm where he met his fellow worker Andres Bonifacio. Bonifacio shared most of his thoughts to him, both got acquinted and later was accepted to the Katipunan.

He and his half brother Jose Turiano Santiago were the primary sponsors to the wedding of Andres Bonifacio and Gregoria De Jesus.

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Today in Philippine History, June 10, 1988, Corazon Aquino signed into law the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform act

On June 10, 1988, President Corazon C. Aquino signed into law Republic Act No. 6657, otherwise known as the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law.

This law provides for the creation of the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (CARP) to promote and ensure the welfare of landless farmers and farm workers, as well as social justice and equity among people in the rural areas.

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Today in Philippine History, June 11, 1901, an act providing for the organization of courts was approved

On June 11, 1901, an act providing for the organization of courts in the Philippine Islands during the American occupation, was approved.

Complete provision was made for a system of judicial tribunals from the highest to the lowest to cover all parts of the archipelago that were subject to (US) civil authority and were not specially excepted. It made provision for three classes of courts: a Supreme Court to be located at Manila, courts of first instance, and courts of justices of the peace.

In addition it left to the mayors of municipalities the powers conferred upon them by the municipal code to try offenses against municipal ordinances. Provost courts, with their special powers, were continued in existence where they were deemed necessary by the military governor.

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Today in Philippine history, June 11, 1978, the Pag-IBIG Fund was established

PAG-IBIG fund or Home Development Mutual Fund   
Home Development Mutual Fund (PAG-IBIG fund).   
On June 11, 1978, by virtue of Presidential Decree No. 1530, the Home Development Mutual Fund (HDMF), more popularly known as the Pag-IBIG Fund was established to answer to the need for a national savings program and an affordable shelter financing for the Filipino worker. Pag-IBIG is an acronym which stands for Pagtutulungan sa Kinabukasan: Ikaw, Bangko, Industria at Gobyerno.

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Today in Philippine History, June 12, 1898, Aguinaldo formally proclaimed the Philippine Independence in Kawit, Cavite

Original Philippine Flag   
The original Flag raised by Emilio Aguinaldo in declaring the independence in 1898 (Click on image to enlarge).   
On June 12, 1898, Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo, head of the Philippine Revolutionary Republic, formally proclaimed Philippine Independence from the central second-story window of the Aguinaldo ancestral house in Kawit, Cavite.

This grand occasion was highlighted by the playing, for the first time, of the Philippine national anthem, the unfurling of the national flag, and the reading of the proclamation of independence.

The Philippine national anthem, which embodies the struggles and the glory of Filipino people in search of freedom from foreign denomination, was composed by Julian Felipe and played by the San Francisco de Malabon Band. The Spanish lyrics were written by Jose Palma a year later.

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Today in Philippine history, June 12, 1962, the "June 12" Independence Day, was observed for the first time

The June 12, 1898 independence declaration   
The June 12, 1898 Independence Declaration.   
On June 12, 1962, the "June 12" Philippine Independence Day, was observed for the first time throughout the country and was celebrated most impressively in Manila. Both President Diosdado Macapagal and the aged General Emilio Aguinaldo took part in the afternoon ceremonies on the Luneta.

The celebration included a Philippine Armed Forces largely motorized parade which took two hours to pass the Luneta grandstand and in which several small units of the United States Army and Air Force participated, and a civic parade which took an hour longer. President Macapagal delivered one of the most eloquent addresses of his career.

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Today in Philippine History, June 13, 1896, Casimiro del Rosario was born in Bantayan, Cebu

Casimiro del Rosario   
Dr. Casimiro del Rosario   
On June 13, 1896, Casimiro V. del Rosario, who was recognized in 1984 as National Scientist in Physics, Astronomy and Meteorology, was born in Bantayan, Cebu.

Dr. Del Rosario is known for his researches on ultraviolet light of different wavelengths, effect of radioactive radiation on euglena (a genus of unicellular organisms), high voltage electrical discharges in a vacuum, and many other accomplishments.

He finished BS in Civil Engineering with honors at the University of the Philippines in 1918; MS in Physics at Yale University in the United States in 1924; and PhD in Physics at the University of Pennsylvania in 1932.

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Today in Philippine History,June 14, 1945, combined forces of Filipino and American soldiers defeated the Japanese troops

On June 14, 1945, combined forces of Filipino and American soldiers defeated the Japanese troops of General Tomoyuki Yamashita in the epic Battle of Bessang Pass in Northern Luzon.

Bessang Pass was the last stronghold of the Japanese imperial forces under Yamashita and was part of the triangular defense of General Yamashita in the north, namely the Balete Pass, Villaverde Trail and Bessang Pass, guarding the Ifugao-Benguet-Vizcaya borders.

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Today in Philippine History, June 14, 1960, Dwight Eisenhower arrived in Manila for state visit

   President Dwight Eisenhower welcome ceremony at the airport  on 

June 14, 1960
   (The President Eisenhower welcome ceremony at the airport on June 14, 1960. On the left is President Carlos Garcia (Photo credit: Philippine Presidential Museum and Library flickr account))
On June 14, 1960, US President Dwight D. Eisenhower arrived in Manila on a plane from Clark Air Field late in the afternoon for a 3-day state visit. His visit marked the first ever made by any US President to the country. He was met by President Carlos Garcia and other Filipino and American officials at the airport. President Garcia in his welcoming statement said that he is welcoming the US President home. Eisenhower also stated that this is indeed for him, a homecoming.

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Today in Philippine History, June 15, 1594, Dasmariñas informed the King of Spain about the establishment of Santa Potenciana and La Misericordia

On June 15, 1594, Governor-general Luis Perez Dasmariñas informed the King of Spain Felipe II about the establishment of Santa Potenciana, a seminary for girls, and the confraternity of La Misericordia.

Dasmariñas who served as governor of the Philippines from December 3, 1593 to July 14, 1596, asked the king for financial support for these institutions as well as informed the king that the colony needs more charitable institutions such as a temporary lodging house for Spaniards and a hospital for native servants.

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Today in Philippine history, June 15, 1945, Miriam Defensor Santiago was born in the city of Iloilo

Miriam Defensor Santiago   
Miriam Defensor Santiago (Photo credit: Ramon Magsaysay Award Foundation).   
On June 15, 1945, Miriam Defensor Santiago, a public servant, a judge and legal scholar, and an outstanding Philippine senator, was born in the city of Iloilo.

Miriam learned to take charge early in life. As a precocious child and the eldest of seven, she was running the household well before she was out of grade school. Her mother was a career woman who eschewed housework, so responsibility for the daily marketing, for supervising the family's untrained village maids, and for organizing her younger brothers and sisters to do their chores devolved upon her.

She also saw to it that the Defensor brood arrived promptly and well-scrubbed for weekly catechism classes and Catholic mass. Discipline was her mother's watchword, and young Miriam came to accept her authoritarian, achievement-oriented environment as "the natural working of the universe".

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Today in Philippine History, June 16, 1980, the Commission on Filipinos Overseas was established

On June 16, 1980, the Philippine government established the Commission on Filipinos Overseas (CFO), an agency tasked to promote and uphold the interests of Filipino emigrants and permanent residents abroad, and preserve and strengthen ties with Filipino communities overseas.

Through the enactment of Batas Pambansa (Republic Act) 79, it replaced the Office of Emigrant Affairs (OEA) but retained its mandate and extended its functions to formulate policies.

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Today in Philippine History, June 17, 1863, Rafael del Pan was born in Intramuros, Manila

   Rafael del Pan
   Rafael del Pan (Photo credit: http://www.asiafinest.com/)
On June 17, 1863, Rafael del Pan, a lawyer, nationalist, and reformist, was born in Intramuros, Manila to Don Jose Felipe del Pan, a Spaniard, and Amalia Garcia Fontela, a Filipina.

Del Pan was sent to Spain when he was seven years old to study. He returned to Manila and studied at the Ateneo Municipal. After obtaining his Bachiller en Artes at the Colegio de San Juan de Letran in 1880, he pursued Law studies at the University of Santo Tomas but did not finish the course. It was in the Central University of Madrid in Spain where he completed his studies in law and obtained the Licenciado en Jurisprudencia on January 28, 1886.

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Today in Philippine History, June 18, 1908, the University of the Philippines was established

   University of the Philippines
On June 18, 1908, the Philippine Legislature enacted a law for the establishment of the University of the Philippines. Preliminary organization of this institution was begun during the latter part of the same year.

The American occupation of the Philippines was followed rapidly by the establishment of a large number of elementary schools and at least one high school in every province. It was soon felt that the nation ought to have a university as the capstone of this public-school system to produce leaders for the nation and prepare men for service in professional and technical fields.

Moreover, in order to retain the students in the high schools, assurance had to be given that the Government intended to provide advanced and professional courses in English. Otherwise they preferred to attend the Spanish schools.

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Today in Philippine History, June 19, 1943 the KALIBAPI elected twenty members of the Preparatory Commission for Philippine independence

   George B. Vargas speaks before the KALIBAPI
   Jorge B. Vargas speaks to the KALIBAPI in the presence of Lt. Gen. Shigenori Kuroda and Speaker Benigno S. Aquino, in the old Senate Session Hall in the Legislative Building, Manila.
On June 19, 1943, The KALIBAPI after declaring quorom and adopting resolutions of gratitude to, and of cooperation with Japan, elected twenty members of the Preparatory Commission for Philippine independence. This body, on orders from the Japanese Imperial Government through the Japanese Imperial Army in the Philippines, was charged with the task of framing a constitution for the Japanese-sponsored Republic headed by Jose P. Laurel.

The very next day the members were formally inducted by Lieutenant General Kuroda. Kuroda made it a great point of the membership of Manuel Roxas in this Commission. It was to be known later however, that the Japanese included Roxas without consulting him. It was believed that Roxas have been avoiding such entanglements by feigning to be more ill than he actually was.

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Today in Philippine History, June 19, 1861, Dr. Jose P. Rizal, was born in Calamba, Laguna

   Jose Rizal by Felix Resurreccion Hidalgo
   Dr. Jose P. Rizal
On June 19, 1861, Jose Protacio Rizal, Philippines National Hero, was born in Calamba, Laguna to Francisco Mercado Rizal and Teodora Alonso Realonda both of Chinese descent. Jose was the seventh of eleven children, Jose was baptized by Father Rufino Collantes on June 22, 1861, with Father Pedro Casanas as his godfather. Jose’s siblings were: Saturnina, Paciano, Narcisa, Olimpia, Lucia, Maria, Concepcion, Josefa, Trinidad and Soledad.

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Today in Philippine History, June 19, 1965, Samar Province was divided into 3 provinces

On June 19, 1965, Republic Act No. 4221 was approved dividing Samar Province into 3 provinces creating the provinces of Northern Samar with Catarman as its capital; Eastern Samar, Borongan as capital; and Western Samar with Catbalogan as its capital.

Subsequently, on June 21, 1969, under Republic Act No. 5650, Western Samar was renamed Samar with Catbalogan still as the capital.

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Today in Philippine History, June 20, 1899, Nonubiki Maru leaves Nagasaki for the Philippines loaded with rifles and ammunition

Mariano Ponce   
Mariano Ponce (Photo credit: Research School for Southeast Asian Studies, Xiamen University)   
On June 20, 1899, the Japanese vessel Nonubiki Maru left Nagasaki for the Philippines loaded with 10,000 rifles, 6,000,000 rounds of ammunition, and other war supplies purchased by Mariano Ponce.

Ponce with the aid of the Chinese revolutionary leader Dr. Sun Yat-sen, in his mission to Japan, obtained sufficient support from the Japanese military and a few Japanese politicians to enter into agreement to purchase arms and ammunition in the Spring of 1899. At the same time, arrangements were made for "retired" Japanese officers to go to the Philippines as advisors to the Filipino army against the Americans. These officers actually served with the Filipino forces but the attempt to ship arms to the islands was a complete failure.

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Today in Philippine History, June 21, 1574, Felipe II bestowed upon Luzon the title of "Nuevo Reino de Castilla" (New Kingdom of Castilla)

On June 21, 1574, King Felipe II of Spain, bestowed upon Luzon the title of "Nuevo Reino de Castilla" (New Kingdom of Castilla), and on Manila that of "Insigne y siempre leal Ciudad" (Distinguished and Ever Loyal City) and permitted the establishment of a new municipal office.

This royal decree confirmed these designations given to Luzon and Manila by the then Governor Miguel Lopez de Legazpi.

On this very same day Fray Martin de Rada, Father Provincial of the Augustinians in the Philippines, gave his written opinion regarding the exaction by the Spaniards of tributes from the natives.

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Today in Philippine History, June 22, 1976, President Marcos approved the "open skies policy"

On June 22, 1976, President Ferdinand Marcos approved the "open skies policy" liberalizing the country's aviation policy and allowing the increase of frequency of flights and entry of foreign airlines into the Philippines.

Over the years, liberalization of international air transport continued to evolve at various levels since the 1980s.

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Today in Philippine history, June 22, 1920, Jovito Salonga was born in Pasig

  
   Senator Jovito Salonga (right) confers with Senator Lorenzo Tañada at the senate in 1966 (Photo credit: Esteban Salonga flickr account).
On June 22, 1920, Jovito Salonga, a lawyer and legal scholar, educator and a distinguesed senator, was born in poverty in the present day Pasig City to a Presbyterian pastor, Esteban Salonga and Bernardita Reyes a market vendor. Jovito Salonga, the youngest of five brothers, worked his way through college and law school as a proofreader in the publishing firm of his eldest brother, Isayas.

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Today in Philippine History, June 23, 1869, Carlos Maria de la Torre started his term as the new Governor-General

Carlos Maria de la Torre   
Governor-general Carlos Maria de la Torre   
On June 23, 1869, Carlos Maria de la Torre y Nava Cerrada started his term as the new Spanish Governor-General of the Philippines.

De la Torre, who was assigned in the Philippines after the bloodless Spanish Revolution of 1869, was considered the most beloved among the Spanish governors-general to serve in the Philippines (1869–1871).

He released political prisoners and even endorsed their criticism of the church and the friars. He was considered a liberal for imposing liberal laws.

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Today in Philippine history, June 23, 1935, Juan Flavier was born in the slums of Manila

Juan M. Flavier   
(Juan M. Flavier (Photo credit: Philippine Department of Health))   
On June 23, 1935, Juan M. Flavier, a "Doctor to the Barrios", former Secretary of Health and Senator, was born in the slums of Manila. He spend his youth in the Mountain Province where his father, a labor organizer, was employed as a mechanic at the Balatoc Mining Company. He excelled in school, and by his talent and determination, and his mother's enterprise, she sold used clothing to help pay for his education, he achieved his dream of becoming a doctor, receiving his degree in Medicine from the University of the Philippines in 1960.

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Today in Philippine History, June 24, 1571 Manila was proclamed as the capital of the Spanish colonial administration in the Philippines

On June 24, 1571, Manila was proclamed as the capital of the Spanish colonial administration in the Philippines

Earlier in Cebu, Spanish colonizer Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, having heard of the rich resources of Manila, dispatched two of his lieutenant-commanders, Martín de Goiti and Juan de Salcedo, to explore the northern region.

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Today in Philippine history, June 24, 1859, Marcela Agoncillo was born in Taal, Batangas

  
Marcela de Agoncillo
   Marcela Agoncillo
On June 24, 1859, Marcela Agoncillo, the maker of the Filipino flag, was born in Taal, Batangas to Francisco Mariño and Eugenia Coronel.

Marcela was reputed to be the prettiest in Batangas so she was fondly called "Roselang Bubog" and like any daughter of a rich couple, a maid or an elderly relative always accompanied her. She was sent to study at the Sta. Catalina College run by the Dominican nuns in Intramuros, Manila. It was in this school that she was trained well. She learned Spanish, music, crafts, and social graces expected from a Filipina of social stature.

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Today in Philippine History, June 25, 1865, the old Bilibid Prison was established in Manila

   Old Biibid Prison
   (Old Bilibid Prison, taken c. 1900, Photo credit: Wikipedia Commons)
On June 25, 1865, the Old Bilibid Prison, the first national penitentiary in the country, was established in Manila under a Spanish royal decree. It was divided into two sections, the "carcel" section housing 600 inmates, and the "presidio" accommodating 527 prisoners.

About seven decades later, due to increasing population and crime rate, Commonwealth Act No. 67 was enacted and the New Bilibid Prison (NBP) was constructed in Muntinlupa, Rizal in 1936 with a budget of P1 million and initial land area of 551 hectares.

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Today in Philippine History, June 25, 1881, a Royal decree was issued abolishing the tobacco monopoly in the Philippines

   Tobacco Plantation
On June 25, 1881, a Royal decree was issued abolishing the tobacco monopoly in the Philippines. The order was applied in the islands in 1882, and the suppression of the monopoly was completed in 1884.

The tobacco monopoly was arranged by Governor Basco y Vargas in pursuance of a royal order of February 9, 1780. Although opposed by certain classes, especially the friars, the monopoly was organized by March 1, 1782, and approved by royal order May 15, 1784.

With the monopoly in place, no man might raise or sell a single leaf of tobacco without first having permission from the government.

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Today in Philippine History, June 25, 1864, Galicano Apacible was born in Balayan, Batangas

Galicano Apacible   
Galicano Apacible   
On June 25, 1864, Galicano Apacible, a patriot and propagandist, was born in Balayan, Batangas. He was the youngest of the three children of Don Vicente Apacible and Catalina Castillo.

Apacible had his early education at the town’s public school and then transferred to the private school of a licensed teacher. Kanoy, as he was fondly called, was eight years old when he completed his preparatory course. There was no high school in Balayan and so he went to Manila where he enrolled at the private school of Benedicto Luna. From there he enrolled at the Colegio de San Juan de Letran.

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Today in Philippine History, June 26, 1875, a Royal decree was issued authorizing the preparation of a general plan for a railroad in Luzon

   Manila to Dagupan railroad
On June 26, 1875, a Royal decree was issued by the King of Spain authorizing the preparation of a general plan for a railroad in the island of Luzon. The Inspector of Public Works was then instructed to form the plan of the railway system with Eduardo Lopez Navarro undertaking the task on November 11 of the same year.

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Today in Philippine History, June 27, 1974, Filipino Chess Master Eugene Torre became Asia's first Grandmaster

On June 27, 1974, Filipino Chess Master Eugene Torre became Asia's first grandmaster by drawing with American Grandmaster Robert Byrne at the 21st Chess Olympiad in Nice, France.

Born on November 4, 1951 in Iloilo City, Torre is considered the best chess player the Philippines ever produced.

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Today in Philippine History, June 27, 1863, Ladislao Diwa, co-founder of the Katipunan, was born in San Roque, Cavite

   Ladislao Diwa
   Ladislao Diwa
On June 27, 1863, Ladislao Diwa, co-founder of the Katipunan, was born in San Roque, Cavite to Mariano Diwa and Cecilia Nocon, who both hailed from San Francisco de Malabon (present day General Trias), Cavite.

Diwa studied under the supervision of Father Francisco Mañalac, who later recommended him at the Colegio de San Juan de Letran as capista. After he finished his Bachelor of Arts degree from Letran, he enrolled in Theology but abandoned the idea of becoming a priest when his father disapproved it. Thus, he opted to become a lawyer so he enrolled Law at the University of Santo Tomas (UST).

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Today in Philippine History, June 28, 1848, Francisco Mercado and Teodora Alonso got married

On June 28, 1848, Francisco Mercado and Teodora Alonso, the parents of Dr. Jose Rizal, got married. Francisco was from Biñan, Laguna while Teodora was from Meisik, Tondo. They had 11 children, 2 boys and 9 girls.

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Today in Philippine History, June 29, 1626, Juan Niño de Tabora arrived in Manila to serve as Governor-General of the Philippines

   Our Lady of Peace and Good Voyage
   (Our Lady of Peace and Good Voyage)
On June 29, 1626, Juan Niño de Tabora, the Spanish general and colonial official, arrived in Manila to serve as Governor-General of the Philippines. De Tabora brought the wooden statue of the Virgin Mary known as Nuestra Señora de la Paz y Buen Viaje (Our Lady of Peace and Good Voyage), now placed in Antipolo Church.

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Today in Philippine History, June 30, 2010, Senator Benigno Aquino III is inaugurated as the 15th President of the Philippines

Benigno Aquino III inauguration on june 30, 2010   
Inauguration of President Benigno Aquino III on June 30, 2010.   
On June 30, 2010, Senator Benigno Aquino III was inaugurated as the 15th President of the Philippines at the Quirino Grandstand in Rizal Park, Manila. He was elected in the country's first automated polls on May 10, 2010.

As mandated by the 1987 Constitution, the new president is be to inaugurated at noon of June 30, in the past, there were different dates for the inauguration of the incoming president.

Among the former presidents who also took their oaths of office on this day (under the 1987 constitution) were Presidents Fidel V. Ramos, Joseph Ejercito Estrada and Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo.

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Today in Philippine History, June 30, 1856, Manuel Luna was born in Badoc, Ilocos Norte

Manuel Luna   
Manuel Luna, a painting by Juan Luna (Credit: Wikipedia Commons)   
On June 30, 1856, Manuel Luna y Novicio, a violin virtuoso and conductor was born in Badoc, Ilocos Norte to Joaquin Luna and Laureana Novicio.

Manuel was brought to Manila at the age of five and began his early studies at the Ateneo Municipal. Later, he transferred to the Spanish Nautical School where he, being a brilliant student, completed his course in 1877 with first honors. Ambitious as he was, Manuel studied violin in his leisure hours with a teacher known only as Nicacio and, consequently, under the Spanish music teacher, Professor Remifio Calahorra. Not satisfied with the training he had received from them, and to further his artistic education, he decided to go to Europe.

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